Franklin quote: Franklin, Benjamin. “Founding Era.” Teaching American History, teachingamericanhistory.org/library/document/letter-to-peter-collinson/.
Japanese suicide rate: “List of Countries by Suicide Rate.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 25 Apr. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_suicide_rate.
Paleo-deficit disorder: Logan, Alan C, et al. “Natural Environments, Ancestral Diets, and Microbial Ecology: Is There a Modern ‘Paleo-Deficit Disorder’? Part I.” Journal of Physiological Anthropology, vol. 34, no. 1, 2015, doi:10.1186/s40101-015-0041-y.
We’re So Healthy It’s Killing Us
Antibiotics increase risk of cardiac arrest: Ray, W.a., et al. “Oral Erythromycin and the Risk of Sudden Death from Cardiac Causes.”ACC Current Journal Review, vol. 13, no. 12, 2004, p. 44., doi:10.1016/j.accreview.2004.11.038. And Svanstrom, H., et al. “Use of Clarithromycin and Roxithromycin and Risk of Cardiac Death: Cohort Study.” Bmj, vol. 349, no. aug19 11, 2014, doi:10.1136/bmj.g4930.
Iatrogenic death: Hendee, William R. “To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System.” Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, vol. 12, no. 1, 2001, doi:10.1016/s1051-0443(01)70072-3.
Adverse drug reactions: http://www.webdc.com/pdfs/deathbymedicine.pdf Lazarou J, Pomeranz BH, Corey PN. Incidence of adverse drug reactions in hospitalized patients: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. JAMA . 1998 Apr 15;279(15):1200-5.
Risk of death: “National Center for Health Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Mar. 2017, www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm.
Postpartum infections: Caplan, Caralee E. (1995). “The Childbed Fever Mystery and the Meaning of Medical Journalism”. McGill Journal of Medicine.
De Costa, Caroline M (Nov 2002). “”The contagiousness of childbed fever”: a short history of puerperal sepsis and its treatment”. The Medical Journal of Australia. 177 (11–12): 668–671
“…better living conditions would help to reduce the number of deaths from tuberculosis better than any medical preventive measure”: Tamm, I. “[Decrease in Tuberculosis Mortality–a Credit to Medicine or Sequela of an Improved Standard of Living].” Das Offentliche Gesundheitswesen., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Feb. 1990, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2139194.
150 million antibiotic prescriptions: “The History of Antibiotics.” HealthyChildren.org, www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/treatments/Pages/The-History-of-Antibiotics.aspx.
Tetracyclines in skeletal remains: Nelson, Mark L., et al. “Brief Communication: Mass Spectroscopic Characterization of Tetracycline in the Skeletal Remains of an Ancient Population from Sudanese Nubia 350-550 CE.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 143, no. 1, 2010, pp. 151–154., doi:10.1002/ajpa.21340.
Lurie I1,2, Yang YX, Haynes K, Mamtani R, Boursi B.J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Nov;76(11):1522-8. doi: 10.4088/JCP.15m09961. Antibiotic exposure and the risk for depression, anxiety, or psychosis: a nested case-control study.
Nat Commun. 2016 Jan 26;7:10410. doi: 10.1038/ncomms10410. Intestinal microbiome is related to lifetime antibiotic use in Finnish pre-school children.Korpela K1, Salonen A1, Virta LJ2, Kekkonen RA3, Forslund K4, Bork P4, de Vos WM1,5,6.
Antibacterial and allergies: Savage, Jessica H., et al. “Urinary Levels of Triclosan and Parabens Are Associated With Aeroallergen and Food Sensitization.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 130, no. 2, 2012, doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.05.006.
Antibiotics and autism: Eshraghi, Rebecca S., et al. “Early Disruption of the Microbiome Leading to Decreased Antioxidant Capacity and Epigenetic Changes: Implications for the Rise in Autism.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, vol. 12, 2018, doi:10.3389/fncel.2018.00256.
54.5 percent of people with autism had 6 or more courses of antibiotics: Parracho, H. M. “Differences between the Gut Microflora of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and That of Healthy Children.” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 54, no. 10, 2005, pp. 987–991., doi:10.1099/jmm.0.46101-0.
Half of children with autism have gastrointestinal problems: Chaidez, Virginia, et al. “Gastrointestinal Problems in Children with Autism, Developmental Delays or Typical Development.” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 44, no. 5, 2013, pp. 1117–1127., doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1973-x.
Antibiotic resistance deaths: “Antibiotic / Antimicrobial Resistance.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 10 Apr. 2017, www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/.
Strachan paper: Strachan, D. P. “Hay Fever, Hygiene, and Household Size.” Bmj, vol. 299, no. 6710, 1989, pp. 1259–1260., doi:10.1136/bmj.299.6710.1259.
Jay Pasricha quote: “Healthy Body.” The Brain-Gut Connection, www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/healthy_aging/healthy_body/the-brain-gut-connection.
Hand-washed dishes: Cheng, L. E., and M. D. Cabana. “Dishing It Out to Allergies.” Pediatrics, vol. 135, no. 3, 2015, doi:10.1542/peds.2014-3911.
Mel Greaves leukemia study: Greaves, Mel. “A Causal Mechanism for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.” Nature Reviews Cancer, 2018, doi:10.1038/s41568-018-0015-6.
The Human Ecosystem
Success of Fecal Transplants: Enuh, Hilary, et al. “Treatment of Relapsing Clostridium Difficile Infection Using Fecal Microbiota Transplantation.” Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology, 2013, p. 1., doi:10.2147/ceg.s53410.
Skin: Goldberg, Joanna. “Faculty of 1000 Evaluation for Topographical and Temporal Diversity of the Human Skin Microbiome.” F1000 – Post-Publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature, 2009, doi:10.3410/f.1162125.622593. Sherwood, Linda; Willey, Joanne; Woolverton, Christopher (2013). Prescott’s Microbiology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 713–721.
Gastrointestinal Tract: Sherwood.
Gut flora and vaginal delivery: Sherwood, Linda; Willey, Joanne; Woolverton, Christopher (2013). Prescott’s Microbiology (9th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. pp. 713–721.
Commercial probiotics: Wang H, Lee IS, Braun C, Enck P (July 2016). “Effect of probiotics on central nervous system functions in animals and humans – a systematic review”. J. Neurogastroenterol Motil
Mice and obesity: Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Fulton, Lucinda; Gordon, Jeffrey I. (April 2008). “Diet-Induced Obesity Is Linked to Marked but Reversible Alterations in the Mouse Distal Gut Microbiome”. Cell Host & Microbe. 3 (4): 213–223.
Oral cavity: Sherwood. Purnima, Kumar (December 2013). “Oral microbiota and systemic disease”. Anaerobe. 24: 90–93. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
Leach quote: Leach, Jeff. “Slumdog Microbiome More Diverse.” Human Food Project, 20 Feb. 2013, humanfoodproject.com/slumdog-microbiome-more-diverse/.
Chlorinated water and immune function: Exon, Jerry H., et al. “Immunotoxicologic Evaluation of Chlorine-Based Drinking Water Disinfectants, Sodium Hypochlorite and Monochloramine.” Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 3, 1987, pp. 257–269., doi:10.1016/0300-483x(87)90028-x.
Dishwashers: Hesselmar, B., et al. “Allergy in Children in Hand Versus Machine Dishwashing.” Pediatrics, vol. 135, no. 3, 2015, doi:10.1542/peds.2014-2968.
Dog: Song, Se Jin, et al. “Cohabiting Family Members Share Microbiota with One Another and with Their Dogs.” ELife, vol. 2, 2013, doi:10.7554/elife.00458
Breast milk: Bode, Lars. “Human Milk Oligosaccharides: Every Baby Needs a Sugar Mama | Glycobiology | Oxford Academic.” Glycobiology. 2012 Sep;22(9):1147-62. doi: 10.1093/glycob/cws074.
A Tough Pill to Swallow
The Pill Development: “Facts and Ideas from Anywhere.” Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center) 28.3 (2015): 421–432.
Other medical conditions caused by hormonal contraceptives: Association of Hormonal Contraception With Depression. Skovlund, Charlotte et al. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016;73(11):1154-1162.
Ecological effects of the pill: S Jobling, R Williams, A Johnson, A Taylor, M Gross-Sorokin, M Nolan. Predicted exposures to steroid estrogens in UK rivers correlate with widespread sexual disruption in wild fish populations. Environmental health perspectives 114 (Suppl 1), 32-39.
Women are attracted to masculine faces: Little, Anthony C., et al. “Preferences for Variation in Masculinity in Real Male Faces Change across the Menstrual Cycle: Women Prefer More Masculine Faces When They Are More Fertile.” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 45, no. 6, 2008, pp. 478–482., doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.024.
Strippers’ earnings: Miller, Geoffrey, et al. “Ovulatory Cycle Effects on Tip Earnings by Lap Dancers: Economic Evidence for Human Estrus?â.” Evolution and Human Behavior, vol. 28, no. 6, 2007, pp. 375–381., doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2007.06.002.
MHC T-shirt study: Wedekind, C., et al. “MHC-Dependent Mate Preferences in Humans.” Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol. 260, no. 1359, 1995, pp. 245–249., doi:10.1098/rspb.1995.0087.
50 years of hormonal contraception: Pletzer, Belinda A., and Hubert H. Kerschbaum. “50 Years of Hormonal Contraception: Time to Find out What It Does to Our Brain.” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 8, 2014, doi:10.3389/fnins.2014.00256.
Lower testosterone: Zimmerman, Y, et al. “The Effect of Combined Oral Contraception on Testosterone Levels in Healthy Women: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Human Reproduction Update, 1 Jan. 1970, europepmc.org/articles/PMC3845679.
Hormonal contraceptive leads to higher serum progesterone: Mucci, Lorelei A., et al. “A Prospective Study of Pregravid Oral Contraceptive Use in Relation to Fetal Growth.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics &Amp; Gynaecology, Blackwell Science Ltd, 16 July 2004, onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2004.00232.x/full.
More potent: Brinton, Muye Zhu and Roberta. “How Progestin, a Synthetic Female Hormone, Could Affect the Brain.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 14 Jan. 2012,
Paleo Family Planning
Frank-Herrmann, J. Heil, C. Gnoth, E. Toledo, S. Baur, C. Pyper, E. Jenetzky, T. Strowitzki, G. Freundl; The effectiveness of a fertility awareness based method to avoid pregnancy in relation to a couple’s sexual behaviour during the fertile time: a prospective longitudinal study, Human Reproduction, Volume 22, Issue 5, 1 May 2007
Jamie L. Bigelow, David B. Dunson, Joseph B. Stanford, René Ecochard, Christian Gnoth, Bernardo Colombo; Mucus observations in the fertile window: a better predictor of conception than timing of intercourse, Human Reproduction, Volume 19, Issue 4, 1 April 2004, Pages 889–892, https://doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deh173
Hilgers TW and Stanford JB: The Use-Effectiveness to Avoid Pregnancy of the Creighton Model NaProEducation Technology: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Trials. J Repro Med 43:495-502, June1998.
NaPro Techolology Website: http://www.naprotechnology.com/
50 percent Infertile go on to conceive: Kennedy, Holly Powell, Martha Griffin, and Gary Frishman (1998). Enabling conception and pregnancy: Midwifery care of women experiencing infertility. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, 43(3), 190-207.
Five million children: Marino, J. L., V. M. Moore, K. J. Willson, A. Rumbold, and M. J. Whitrow, et al. (2014). Perinatal Outcomes by Mode of Assisted Conception and Sub-Fertility in an Australian Data Linkage Cohort. PLOS One, 9(1), 1.
20-30 percent of infertility cases without cause: Nakano, Fabiana Y., Rogerio de Barros F. Leao, and Sandro C. Esteves (2015). Insights into the role of cervical mucus and vaginal pH in unexplained infertility. Medical Express, 2(2), 1-8.
Cost of IVF: Sunderam, Saswati, Dmitry M. Kissin, Sara B. Crawford, Suzanne G. Folger, Denise J. Jamieson, Lee Warner, and Wanda D. Barfield (2017). Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance – United States, 2014. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Surveillance Summaries, 66(6), 1-24.
Side effects to IVF: Kamphius, Esme I., S. Bhattacharya, F. van der Veen, B. W. J. Mol, and A. Templeton (2016). Are we overusing IVF?. BMJ, 348(252), 1.
Marino, J. L., V. M. Moore, K. J. Willson, A. Rumbold, and M. J. Whitrow, et al. (2014). Perinatal Outcomes by Mode of Assisted Conception and Sub-Fertility in an Australian Data Linkage Cohort. PLOS One, 9(1), 1.
Necessities: Kennedy 191
Hostile mucus: Kennedy 194
Acidic environment: Nakano 1
Antibiotics and vaginal pH: Nakano 2
Fertile mucus: Nakano 3
Basal Body temperature: Kennedy 193
Clomaphine Citrate: Sweed, Mohamed S., Osama S. El-Kady, Eman A. AbdElSalam, and Mohammed M. Mostafa (2016). Anti-Müllerian hormone and response to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 5(3), 603-608.
Decreased sperm and libido, sluggish sperm: Kennedy 196
Vaginal lubricants infertility: (Kennedy 198)
Diet: Brabin, Bernard J., Sabine Gies, Stephen Owens, Yves Claeys, Umberto D’Alessandro, Halidou Tinto, and Loretta Brabin (2016). Perspectives on the design and methodology of periconceptional nutrient supplementation trials. Trials, 17(58), 1-24.
Cetin, I., C. Berti, and S. Calabrese (2009). Role of micronutrients in the periconceptional period. Human Reproduction Update, 16(1), 80-95.
Vitamin B6: Grajecki, Donata, Brigit-Christine Zyriax, and Kai J. Buhling (2012). Reproductive Medicine, 285, 1463-1471.
Alcohol and men’s fertility: Comhaire, Frank H. and Ahmed Mahmoud (2003). The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 7(4), 385-391.
DHA, antioxidants: Comhaire, Frank H. and Ahmed Mahmoud (2003). The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 7(4), 385-391.
Folic acid: Grajecki 1464
Over-exercise: Kennedy 194
You and Your Baby Are What You Eat
2015 study: Mennitti, Laís V., Juliana L. Oliveira, Carina A. Morais, Débora Estadella, Lila M. Oyamab, Claudia M. Oller do Nascimento, Luciana P. Pisani (2015). Type of fatty acids in maternal diets during pregnancy and/or lactation and metabolic consequences of the offspring. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 26, 99-111.
Child’s risk of disease: Ferreira, Manuela (2014). Pre-birth world and the development of the immune system: Mum’s diet affects our adult health. Journal of Bio Essays, 36(12), 1213.
Behavioral and mental concerns: O’Neil, Adrienne, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Helen Skouteris, Rachel S Opie, Skye McPhie, Briony Hill, and Felice N. Jackal (2014). Preventing mental health problems in offspring by targeting dietary intake of pregnant women. BMC Medicine, 12(208), 1-7.
Taste programming: World Health Organization. Good Maternal Nutrition: the best start in life (2016). (ISBN 978 92 890 5154 5).
DHA, nervous system, improved sleep: Judge, Michelle P., Xiaomei Cong, Ofer Harel, Amber B. Courville, Carol J. Lammi-Keefe (2012). Maternal consumption of a DHA-containing functional food benefits infant sleep patterning: an early neurodevelopmental measure. Early Human Development, 88(7), 531-537.
Iron, red blood cells: Bothwell, Thomas H. (2000). Iron Requirements in Pregnancy and Strategies to Meet Them. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(1), 257-264.
Red Meat: Williams, Peter (2007). Nutritional composition of red meat. Nutrition & Dietetics, 64(s4), 113-119.
Defects combatted by multivitamins, folate: Czeizel, Andrew E., Istvan Dudas, Attila Vereczkey, and Ferenc Bánhidy (2013). Folate Deficiency and Folic Acid Supplementation: The Prevention of Neural-Tube Defects and Congenital Heart Defects. Nutrients, 15(11), 4760-4775.
Vaccination: “Edward Jenner and the Discovery of Smallpox Vaccination.” JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 95, no. 20, 1930, p. 1528., doi:10.1001/jama.1930.02720200064037.
10.3 million lives: Olshansky, S. J., and L. Hayflick. “The Role of the WI-38 Cell Strain in Saving Lives and Reducing Morbidity.” AIMS Public Health, vol. 4, no. 2, 2017, pp. 127–138., doi:10.3934/publichealth.2017.2.127.
Smallpox vaccine side effects: “Smallpox Vaccine Side Effects in Detail.” Drugs.com, Drugs.com, www.drugs.com/sfx/smallpox-vaccine-side-effects.html.
National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program cases: “Practice Areas.” Maglio Christopher Toale PA Complex Litigation Attorneys, www.mctlawyers.com/vaccine-injury/cases/.
Aluminum safety in IV feeders: Bishop, Nicholas J., et al. “Aluminum Neurotoxicity in Preterm Infants Receiving Intravenous-Feeding Solutions.” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 336, no. 22, 1997, pp. 1557–1562., doi:10.1056/nejm199705293362203.
Hepatitis B vaccine and developmental delay, autism: Gallagher, Carolyn, and Melody Goodman. “Hepatitis B Triple Series Vaccine and Developmental Disability in US Children Aged 1–9 Years.” Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, vol. 90, no. 5, 2008, pp. 997–1008., doi:10.1080/02772240701806501.
Shingles and varicella vaccine: Goldman, G.s., and P.g. King. “Review of the United States Universal Varicella Vaccination Program: Herpes Zoster Incidence Rates, Cost-Effectiveness, and Vaccine Efficacy Based Primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project Data.” Vaccine, vol. 31, no. 13, 2013, pp. 1680–1694., doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.05.050.
FDA recalls: “35 FDA-Approved Prescription Drugs Later Pulled from the Market – Prescription Drug Ads – ProCon.org.” Should Prescription Drugs Be Advertised Directly to Consumers?, prescriptiondrugs.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=005528.
Water and immune function: Penkman, Michael A., et al. “Effect of Hydration Status on High-Intensity Rowing Performance and Immune Function.” International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, vol. 3, no. 4, 2008, pp. 531–546., doi:10.1123/ijspp.3.4.531.
Haven’t You Herd?
Asymptomatic Transmission of Pertussis: Gill, Christopher. “Faculty of 1000 Evaluation for Asymptomatic Transmission and the Resurgence of Bordetella Pertussis.” F1000 – Post-Publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature, 2017, doi:10.3410/f.725585738.793535722.
Vaccine shedding: Levin, Myron J., et al. “Shedding of Live Vaccine Virus, Comparative Safety, and Influenza-Specific Antibody Responses after Administration of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Trivalent Influenza Vaccines to HIV-Infected Children.” National Health Institute, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 5 Aug. 2008, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2615200/.
Hepatitis B adverse events: VAERS database search: http://www.medalerts.org/vaersdb
Mayo Clinic Recommendations: Poland, Gregory A., et al. “Vaccine Immunogenetics: Bedside to Bench to Population.” Vaccine, vol. 26, no. 49, 2008, pp. 6183–6188., doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.06.057.
Fallacies in the Vaccine Debate
All vaccines: Naro, Maki. “Vaccines Work. Here Are the Facts. – The Nib – Medium.” Medium, The Nib, 15 Dec. 2014, medium.com/the-nib/vaccines-work-here-are-the-facts-5de3d0f9ffd0.
Sackett quote: Smith, R. “Thoughts for New Medical Students at a New Medical School.” Bmj, vol. 327, no. 7429, 2003, pp. 1430–1433., doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7429.1430.
Polio incident: Cameli, C. “The Cutter Incident: How America’s First Polio Vaccine Led to the Growing Vaccine Crisis.” Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, vol. 51, no. 5, 2006, doi:10.1016/j.jmwh.2006.05.006.
Jack and Cleo: Keith, JJ. “I’m Coming Out… as Pro-Vaccine.” The Huffington Post, TheHuffingtonPost.com, 24 Sept. 2013, www.huffingtonpost.com/jj-keith/vaccines_b_3829948.html.
Flu vaccine side effects: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/BiologicsBloodVaccines/Vaccines/ApprovedProducts/UCM305079.pdf
MMR deaths: Weibel, Robert E., et al. “Acute Encephalopathy Followed by Permanent Brain Injury or Death Associated With Further Attenuated Measles Vaccines: A Review of Claims Submitted to the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.” Pediatrics, vol. 101, no. 3, Jan. 1998, pp. 383–387., doi:10.1542/peds.101.3.383.
Lee, Sin Hang. Detection of human papillomavirus L1 gene DNA
fragments in postmortem blood and spleen after Gardasil® vaccination—A case report. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2012, 3, 1214-1224 ABB
doi:10.4236/abb.2012.38148 Published Online December 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/abb/)
Lucija Tomljenovic & Christopher A. Shaw (2013) Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine policy and evidence-based medicine: Are they at odds?, Annals of Medicine, 45:2, 182-193, DOI: 10.3109/07853890.2011.645353
Lucija Tomljenovic & Christopher A. Shaw Death after Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination: Causal or Coincidental? Pharmaceut Reg Affairs 2012, S12:001 http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2167-7689.S12-001
FDA Documents Gardasil: VRBPAC Background Document Gardasil™ HPV Quadrivalent Vaccine May 18, 2006 VRBPAC Meeting. (Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee).
Vaccines and infant mortality:
Goldman, GS, and NZ Miller. “Relative Trends in Hospitalizations and Mortality among Infants by the Number of Vaccine Doses and Age, Based on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), 1990–2010.” Human & Experimental Toxicology 31.10 (2012): 1012–1021. PMC. Web. 11 Sept. 2018.
Wakefield shady: https://medium.com/the-nib/vaccines-work-here-are-the-facts-5de3d0f9ffd0
Retraction: Lancet, The Editors Of The. “RetractionâIleal-Lymphoid-Nodular Hyperplasia, Non-Specific Colitis, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder in Children.” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9713, 2010, p. 445., doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(10)60175-4.
Lancet acknowledgement: “Happy New Year: The Lancet Acknowledges Dr. Andrew Wakefield Is Exonerated.” Autism Investigated, www.autisminvestigated.com/the-lancet-dr-andrew-wakefield/.
Smallpox: Kohn, David. “The Most Dangerous Vaccine.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 12 Dec. 2002, www.cbsnews.com/news/the-most-dangerous-vaccine/.
Daycare and disease: Hinman, A. R. “Vaccine-Preventable Diseases and Child Day Care.” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 4, 1986, pp. 573–583., doi:10.1093/clinids/8.4.573.
Uptick in Pertussis: Althouse, Benjamin M., and Samuel V. Scarpino. “Asymptomatic Transmission and the Resurgence of Bordetella Pertussis.” BMC Medicine, vol. 13, no. 1, 2015, doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0382-8.
Siblings main source of pertussis in young infants: Bertilone C, Wallace T, Selvey L. Finding the ‘who’ in whooping cough: vaccinated siblings are important pertussis sources in infants 6 months of age and under. Communicable Diseases Intelligence.. 2014 Sep 30;38(3):E195-200.
Breast or Bottle
Benefits of breastmilk: Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors. Pediatric clinics of North America. 2013;60(1):49-74. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2012.10.002.
Fed is Best
History of formula: Eglash, Anne, Anne Montgomery, and Julie Wood (2008). Breastfeeding. Disease-a-month, 54(6), 343-411.
Hypoglycemic brain injury: Seske, L. M., Merhar, S. L. & Haberman, B. E. Late-Onset Hypoglycemia in Term Newborns With Poor Breastfeeding. Hosp Pediatr 5, 501–504 (2015).
Early supplementation may increase duration: Flaherman, V. J. et al. Early Weight Loss Nomograms for Exclusively Breastfed Newborns. PEDIATRICS 135, e16–e23 (2015).
Noel-Weiss, Joy, Genevieve Courant, and A Kirsten Woodend. “Physiological Weight Loss in the Breastfed Neonate: A Systematic Review.” Open Medicine2.4 (2008): e99–e110. Print.
1961 Time Magazine article: Khazan, Olga. “When Trans Fats Were Healthy.” The Atlantic, Atlantic Media Company, 8 Nov. 2013, www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2013/11/when-trans-fats-were-healthy/281274/.
CSPI’s Saturated Fat Attack: Schleifer, David. “The Perfect Solution: How Trans Fats Became the Healthy Replacement for Saturated Fats.” Technology and Culture, vol. 53, no. 1, 2012, pp. 94–119., doi:10.1353/tech.2012.0018.
Eat Our Colors: http://chppm-www.apgea.army.mil/dhpw/Wellness/SavorSpectrum.jpg. Health magazine, April 2004. Stomach acidity: http://www.smartskincare.com/skinbiology/sebum.html. Decreased oral health: Larsen 1998. Scissor-like motion: Klein (1999:204). Chimps: Harris (1989:37-38). Dogs are color blind: http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/dog/LA/DrP4.htm. Stomach acidity: http://www.smartskincare.com/skinbiology/sebum.html. Chivers quote: Chivers (1992: 64). Digestive system: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/index.htm. Animals’ digestive tract: http://www.hillstrath.on.ca/moffatt/bio3a/digestive/vartheme.htm
How A Dynamic Physiology Helps Humans: Peter Wheeler: McKie (2000: 23).
Fogel: Fogel (1999). French fries: http://www.rense.com/general7/whyy.htm
Sedentary lifestyle: Larsen, 1995; Fermentation: Rush (2000); Chivers (1994:60-64). Grains: Kushi (1993). Mastadons: http://www.unmuseum.org/missingm.htm. Vitamins: http://www.nwhealth.edu/healthyU/eatWell/vitamins_1.html, http://www.ext.colostate.edu/PUBS/foodnut/09312.html. Iroquois and Cracker Jacks: http://cuyahogafallshistory.com/Beginnings/native_american_food.htm, http://www.crackerjack.com/nutrition.php
Appropriate Your Diet
Breastmilk has higher sleep-inducers at night: Sánchez, Cristina L., et al. “The Possible Role of Human Milk Nucleotides as Sleep Inducers.” Nutritional Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 1, 2009, pp. 2–8., doi:10.1179/147683009×388922.
Different contents throughout the day: Khan, Sadaf, et al. “Variation in Fat, Lactose, and Protein Composition in Breast Milk over 24 Hours.” Journal of Human Lactation, vol. 29, no. 1, 2012, pp. 81–89., doi:10.1177/0890334412448841. Nommsen, L A, et al. “Determinants of energy, protein, lipid, and lactose concentrations in human milk during the first 12 mo of lactation: the DARLING Study.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1 Feb. 1991, ajcn.nutrition.org/content/53/2/457.short.
Melatonin in breast milk: Illnerova, H. “Melatonin Rhythm in Human Milk.” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 77, no. 3, Jan. 1993, pp. 838–841., doi:10.1210/jc.77.3.838.
Eat from Nature
HFCS: Stanhope, K.L. et al. A dose-response study of consuming high-fructose corn syrup–sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 101, Issue 6, 1 June 2015, Pages 1144–1154, https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.100461
Willett quote: “Low Fat.” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/diet/themes/lowfat.html.
Sugar leads to cardiovascular disease: Yang, Quanhe, et al. “Added Sugar Intake and Cardiovascular Diseases Mortality Among US Adults.” JAMA Internal Medicine, vol. 174, no. 4, 2014, p. 516., doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13563.
Sugar leads to diabetes: Basu, Sanjay, et al. “The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data.” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, 2013, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057873.
Sugar leads to cancer: “Excess Sugar Linked to Cancer.” British Dental Journal, vol. 214, no. 4, 2013, pp. 150–150., doi:10.1038/sj.bdj.2013.181.
Coca-Cola study: O’Connor, Anahad. “Coca-Cola Funds Scientists Who Shift Blame for Obesity Away From Bad Diets.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 9 Aug. 2015, well.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/08/09/coca-cola-funds-scientists-who-shift-blame-for-obesity-away-from-bad-diets/.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Rippe, James, and Theodore Angelopoulos. “Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding.” Nutrients, vol. 8, no. 11, 2016, p. 697., doi:10.3390/nu8110697.
Benefits of no-sugar diet with cancer: Allen, Bryan G., et al. “Ketogenic Diets as an Adjuvant Cancer Therapy: History and Potential Mechanism.” Redox Biology, vol. 2, 2014, pp. 963–970., doi:10.1016/j.redox.2014.08.002.
Grow Food Not Lawns
Glyphosate: Samsel, Anthony, and Stephanie Seneff. “Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases.” Entropy, vol. 15, no. 12, 2013, pp. 1416–1463., doi:10.3390/e15041416.
Gardening for cholesterol and blood pressure: Armstrong, Donna. A survey of
community gardens in upstate New York: Implications for health promotion and community development. Health & Place 6 (2000) 319-327.
CDC: “Gardening Health and Safety Tips.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 22 Apr. 2014, www.cdc.gov/family/gardening/.
Stress-reducer: Berg, Agnes E. Van Den, and Mariëtte H.g. Custers. “Gardening Promotes Neuroendocrine and Affective Restoration from Stress.” Journal of Health Psychology, vol. 16, no. 1, Mar. 2010, pp. 3–11., doi:10.1177/1359105310365577.
Nursery Home plant study: Hanger, E. J., and J. Rodin. “The Effects of Choice and Enhanced Personal Responsibility for the Aged: a Field Experiment in an Institutional Setting.” Psychosocial Processes and Health, pp. 400–412., doi:10.1017/cbo9780511759048.031. Elderly: Boyle, Patricia A., et al. “Purpose in Life Is Associated With Mortality Among Community-Dwelling Older Persons.” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 71, no. 5, 2009, pp. 574–579., doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e3181a5a7c0.
Learn to Play/Play to Learn
Screens and metabolic syndrome: Kang, Hee-Taik, et al. “Association between Screen Time and Metabolic Syndrome in Children and Adolescents in Korea: The 2005 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.” Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 89, no. 1, 2010, pp. 72–78., doi:10.1016/j.diabres.2010.02.016.
Video game as stressor: Sharma R, Khera S, Mohan A, Gupta N, Ray RB. Assessment of computer game as a psychological stressor. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006;50(4):367-74.
The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Kids Age Zero to Eight
Parent cell phone usage and injury, The Palsson Smartphone and Child Injury:http://www.palssonresearch.
Language and parent smartphone use: https://templeinfantlab.com/
Chlorpromazine: Ban, Thomas A. “Fifty Years Chlorpromazine: A Historical Perspective.” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 3.4 (2007): 495–500. Print.
Librium and Valium: Greenberg, Gary. “The Psychiatric Drug Crisis.” The New Yorker, The New Yorker, 19 June 2017, www.newyorker.com/tech/elements/the-psychiatric-drug-crisis.
No correlation between neurotransmitters and depression: Mendels J., 1974, Brain biogenic amine depletion and mood, Archives of General Psychiatry, 30: 447- 51
Antidepressants highest dose no different than lowest dose: Kirsch, Irving, et al. “The Emperor’s New Drugs: An Analysis of Antidepressant Medication Data Submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.” Prevention & Treatment, vol. 5, no. 1, 2002, doi:10.1037/1522-3718.104.22.1683a.
Fava paper: Fava, Giovanni A. “Can Long-Term Treatment With Antidepressant Drugs Worsen the Course of Depression?” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 64, no. 2, 2003, pp. 123–133., doi:10.4088/jcp.v64n0204.
Whitaker quote: Whitaker, Robert. Anatomy of an Epidemic: Magic Bullets, Psychiatric Drugs, and the Astonishing Rise of Mental Illness in America. Broadway Books, 2015 p. 209.
Blue Cross Blue Shield Report: “Major Depression: The Impact on Overall Health.” Blue Cross Blue Shield, www.bcbs.com/the-health-of-america/reports/major-depression-the-impact-overall-health.
Inflammation and depression: Schmidt, Frank M., et al. “Inflammation and Immune Regulation as Potential Drug Targets in Antidepressant Treatment.” Current Neuropharmacology, vol. 14, no. 7, 2016, pp. 674–687., doi:10.2174/1570159×14666160115130414.
Evolutionary benefit of depression: Miller, Andrew H., and Charles L. Raison. “The Role of Inflammation in Depression: from Evolutionary Imperative to Modern Treatment Target.” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016, pp. 22–34., doi:10.1038/nri.2015.5.
Golden, Gerald. “Role of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Learning Disabilities.” Seminars in Neurology, vol. 11, no. 01, 1991, pp. 35–41., doi:10.1055/s-2008-1041203.
Kagan quotes: Grolle, Johann, and Samiha Shafy. “SPIEGEL Interview with Jerome Kagan: ‘What About Tutoring Instead of Pills?’ – SPIEGEL ONLINE – International.” SPIEGEL ONLINE, SPIEGEL ONLINE, 2 Aug. 2012, www.spiegel.de/international/world/child-psychologist-jerome-kagan-on-overprescibing-drugs-to-children-a-847500.html.
Stephanie’s story: Baughman, Fred A. The Adhd Fraud: How Psychiatry Makes “Patients” of Normal Children. Trafford Publishing, 2006.
Ritalin deaths: 1.8%: Nurnberger, John, and Vegas Coleman. “Faculty of 1000 Evaluation for Sudden Death and Use of Stimulant Medications in Youths.” F1000 – Post-Publication Peer Review of the Biomedical Literature, 2010, doi:10.3410/f.1691959.1198057. 1.8-fold increase: Schelleman, Hedi, et al. “Methylphenidate and Risk of Serious Cardiovascular Events in Adults.” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 2, 2012, pp. 178–185., doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2011.11010125. 1990-2000: Baughman p. 8. 1999-2004: Alfano, Sean. “FDA: 25 Died From ADHD Drugs.” CBS News, CBS Interactive, 8 Feb. 2006, www.cbsnews.com/news/fda-25-died-from-adhd-drugs/.
The Nature Cure
Pew Research center: Lenhart, Amanda. “Teens, Social Media & Technology Overview 2015.” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, Pew Research Center, 8 Apr. 2015, www.pewinternet.org/2015/04/09/teens-social-media-technology-2015/.
Being indoors reduces physical activity of a child up to 75 percent: Baranowski, Tom, et al. “Observations on Physical Activity in Physical Locations: Ager Gender, Ethnicity, and Month Effects.” Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 64, no. 2, 1993, pp. 127–133., doi:10.1080/02701367.1993.10608789.
“Can’t cope and become addicted, reacting with tantrums and uncontrollable behaviour when they are taken away [from their tablet].”: Ward, Victoria. “Toddlers Becoming so Addicted to IPads They Require Therapy.” The Telegraph, Telegraph Media Group, 21 Apr. 2013, www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/10008707/Toddlers-becoming-so-addicted-to-iPads-they-require-therapy.html.
Increase in diagnosis of ADHD: Mayes, Rick, et al. “ADHD and the Rise in Stimulant Use Among Children.” Harvard Review of Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 3, 2008, pp. 151–166., doi:10.1080/10673220802167782.
90-minute walk study: Bratman, Gregory N., et al. “Nature Experience Reduces Rumination and Subgenual Prefrontal Cortex Activation.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112, no. 28, 2015, pp. 8567–8572., doi:10.1073/pnas.1510459112.
Four days in a natural environment: Atchley, Ruth Ann, et al. “Creativity in the Wild: Improving Creative Reasoning through Immersion in Natural Settings.” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051474.
Kuo and Taylor: Jensen, P.s. “A Potential Natural Treatment for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence From a National Study.” Yearbook of Psychiatry and Applied Mental Health, vol. 2006, 2006, pp. 53–54., doi:10.1016/s0084-3970(08)70057-4.
Korean study: Kim, Gwang-Won, et al. “Functional Neuroanatomy Associated with Natural and Urban Scenic Views in the Human Brain: 3.0T Functional MR Imaging.” Korean Journal of Radiology, vol. 11, no. 5, 2010, p. 507., doi:10.3348/kjr.2010.11.5.507.
Natural stimuli: Atchley, Ruth Ann, et al. “Creativity in the Wild: Improving Creative Reasoning through Immersion in Natural Settings.” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 12, Dec. 2012, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051474.
Natural bacteria and mood: Lowry, C.a., et al. “Identification of an Immune-Responsive Mesolimbocortical Serotonergic System: Potential Role in Regulation of Emotional Behavior.” Neuroscience, vol. 146, no. 2, 2007, pp. 756–772., doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.067.
Natural bacteria and learning: Matthews, Dorothy, and Susan M Jenks. “Ingestion of Mycobacterium Vaccae Decreases Anxiety-Related Behavior and Improves Learning in Mice.” Behavioural Processes, Elsevier, 27 Feb. 2013, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376635713000296.
Brain health: Matthews, Dorothy M., and Susan M. Jenks. “Ingestion of Mycobacterium Vaccae Decreases Anxiety-Related Behavior and Improves Learning in Mice.” Behavioural Processes, vol. 96, 2013, pp. 27–35., doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2013.02.007.